A fractional advection-dispersion equation (fADE) has been advocated for heavy-tailed flows where the usual Brownian diffusion models fail. A stochastic differential equation (SDE) driven by a stable Lévy process gives a forward equation that matches the space-fractional advection-dispersion equation and thus gives the stochastic framework of particle tracking for heavy-tailed flows. For constant advection and dispersion coefficient functions, the solution to such SDE itself is a stable process and can be derived easily by least square parameter fitting from the observed flow concentration data. However, in a more generalized scenario, a closed form for the solution to a stable SDE may not exist. We propose a numerical method for solving/generating a stable SDE in a general set-up. The method incorporates a discretized finite volume scheme with the characteristic line to solve the fADE or the forward equation for the Markov process that solves the stable SDE. Then we use a numerical scheme to generate the solution to the governing SDE using the fADE solution. Also, often the functional form of the advection or dispersion coefficients are not known for a given plume concentration data to start with. We use a Levenberg–Marquardt (L-M) regularization method to estimate advection and dispersion coefficient function from the observed data (we present the case for a linear advection) and proceed with the SDE solution construction described above.
This paper deals with a homoskedastic errors-in-variables linear regression model and properties of the total least squares (TLS) estimator. We partly revise the consistency results for the TLS estimator previously obtained by the author . We present complete and comprehensive proofs of consistency theorems. A theoretical foundation for construction of the TLS estimator and its relation to the generalized eigenvalue problem is explained. Particularly, the uniqueness of the estimate is proved. The Frobenius norm in the definition of the estimator can be substituted by the spectral norm, or by any other unitarily invariant norm; then the consistency results are still valid.